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Git is a distributed version control system designed to manage source code history and facilitate collaboration among developers. Here's a summarized overview of Git's key functionalities:

Version Control:
Git tracks changes to files and directories over time, creating a version history.
Each commit represents a snapshot of the project at a specific point in time.

Developers can create branches to work on features or bug fixes independently of the main codebase.
Branches allow parallel development and experimentation.

Changes made in one branch can be merged back into another branch, combining different lines of development.
Git automatically handles merging when possible; conflicts require manual resolution.

Remote Repositories:
Git supports collaboration by allowing repositories to be hosted remotely on services like GitHub, GitLab, or Bitbucket.
Developers can clone, push, and pull changes between local and remote repositories.

Developers can create a copy of a remote repository on their local machine using the git clone command.

Changes are staged and committed using the git commit command, with each commit having a unique identifier.

Pull and Fetch:
git pull fetches changes from a remote repository and merges them into the current branch.
git fetch fetches changes from a remote repository but doesn't automatically merge them.

Developers use git push to upload their local changes to a remote repository, making them accessible to others.

The git status command shows the current state of the working directory, indicating changes, untracked files, and branch information.

git log provides a history of commits, including details like author, date, and commit messages.

Tags in Git allow developers to mark specific points in history, often used for version releases.

Developers can use git stash to save changes temporarily, allowing them to switch branches or perform other tasks without committing incomplete work.

These fundamental Git functionalities provide a robust and flexible version control system for managing collaborative software development projects.